Wednesday, July 10, 2019

Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Oil & Gas Applications

Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Oil & Gas Applications
Beyond traditional oil and gas extraction techniques, the Oil & Gas Industry has been booming in the United States and around the world since the demand for shale oil has led to horizontal fraction drilling all over the world and even in several regions of the U.S. This drilling is happening both on and offshore to tap into vast quantities of resources trapped in the porous shale deposits deep underground and under the seabed. The flowback from shale oil plays has many different components that must undergo a process of separation in order to isolate the resources for use. Once separated, the byproducts are often stored in tanks before being transported for distribution and sale.

Thermal mass flow meters have been used to measure tank vent and flash gas during storage. VOC emissions from these tank batteries are required to be reported for regulatory purposes. The accurate monitoring of leaks from these tanks is another common use of thermal mass flow meters.

Thermal Mass Flow Meters
Thermal Mass Flow Meters
(Fox Thermal)
The flowback from fracking well heads must go through separators in order to separate the
water/chemical solution from the oil and gas components that the water has forced out of the shale formations. The gases processed by the separators exit the separator unit from its own outlet that must be accurately measured for accounting and allocation purposes. Furthermore, flow of water, oil, and gases from the separator equipment must be measured to determine how productive the resources from the gas well head are. Over time, the well heads produce less and less gases and owners must determine when to decommission them.

Due to the often remote locations of these gas wells, there are not always local utilities available to power the equipment needed at the well site. Fuel gas to the equipment is needed to measure and monitor consumption.

Exhaust and vent gas from compressor packing cases is required to be monitored for environmental impact.

Some common gases and applications:
  • Compressor Packing Case Exhaust Flow Measurement
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring Flow Meters
  • Continuous Emissions Monitoring
  • Flow Meters for EPA and Other Emissions Regulations and Protocols
  • GHG Flow Meter
  • Sub meters for Natural Gas Measurement
  • Tank Vent / Flash Gas Station Monitoring
  • Natural Gas Totalizers
  • Methane Flow Measurement
  • Propane Flow Measurement
  • 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart OOOO Reporting
  • 40 CFR Part 98 Subpart W Reporting
  • CO2e Reporting
  • Flare and Combustor Gas Measurement
  • Separator Gas Measurement
  • Vapor Recovery Unit (VRU) Gas Measurement
  • Fuel & Combustion Gas Measurement
  • Other Pure and Mixed Gas Applications
For more information on applying thermal mass flow meters in the oil and gas industry, contact Classic Controls at 863-644-3642 or visit https://classiccontrols.com.

Sunday, June 30, 2019

Case Study On Thermal Flow Meter Calibration For Natural Gas Service

The Importance of Gas Composition and Calibration and their Effects on Flow Meter Accuracy

Errors associated with the calibration of flow meters for natural gas service can be costly but can also be mitigated using an advanced flow meter design that allows field-adjustment of the natural gas composition without loss of accuracy.

This outstanding case study, courtesy of Fox Thermal Instruments, discusses the importance of gas composition and calibration and their effects on flow meter accuracy.



For more information, contact Classic Controls.
https://classiccontrols.com
863.644.3642

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Basics of Rotameters

Rotameter operationRotameters, also referred to as variable area flow meters, have diverse industrial processing applications that range from simple to sophisticated. The devices are easy to install, require no electrical connection, and provide direct flow rate reading. They provide fail-safe flow rate readings in a wide array of industrial applications.

Rotameters: An Overview 

Developed by German inventor Karl Kueppers in 1908, Rotameters measure the volumetric flow rate of liquids and gases.

Important elements of a rotameter (variable area flow meter) include the tube and the float. Their operation is simple. The tube is fixed vertically and the fluid is fed from the bottom. It travels upward and exits from the top. The float remains at the bottom when no liquid is present and rises upward when fluid enters the tube.

The float inside the tube moves in proportion to the rate of fluid flow and the area between the tube wall and the float. When the float moves upward, the area increases while the differential pressure decreases. A stable position is reached when the upward force exerted by the fluid is equal to the weight of the float. A scale mounted on the tube records the flow rate of the liquid. Usually, the flow can be adjusted manually using a built-in valve.

Types of Rotameter 

Variable area flow meters can be categorized by the type of tube they use, which relates to their ability to withstands various pressures, temperatures, process media, and cost. Process connection size and wetted part materials vary as a function the rotameter type and construction.

Glass Tube Rotameter
Glass Tube Rotameter
(Yokogawa)
Glass Tube Rotameter - The basic glass variable area flow meter consists of borosilicate glass tube while the float is made of either glass, plastic, or stainless steel. The most common combination is a glass tube and metal float. This is suitable for a measure the flow rate of liquid of low to medium temperatures and pressures.

Applications:

  • Analytical instrumentation
  • Industrial processes
  • Chemical production
  • Pharmaceutical production
  • Oil & gas extraction
  • Refining processes
  • Fuel cell research
  • Water treatment systems

Metal Tube Rotameter
Metal Tube Rotameter
(Yokogawa)
Metal Tube Rotameter - Metal tube variable area flow meters are another type that is suitable for temperatures and pressures beyond the physical and mechanical limits of glass tube versions. They are generally manufactured of stainless steel, aluminum, or brass. The piston position is determined by the mechanical and magnetic followers that can be read from the outside of the tube. They are suitable in situations where applications conditions would damage the glass metering tubes, such as steam applications.

Applications:

  • Purge liquid/ gas metering
  • Liquid, oil, or gas flow measurement
  • Chemical injection
  • Rotating equipment flow measurement
  • High-pressure flow meters on offshore oil platforms
For more information, contact Classic Controls.
https://classiccontrols.com
863.644.3642

Friday, May 31, 2019

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meters: Measure from the Outside of the Pipe


Conventional measuring systems such as differential pressure meters, electromagnetic flowmeters, vortex meters or Coriolis mass flowmeters require costly pipe modifications and experience increased wear resulting in frequent maintenance intervals. FLEXIM is the technology and market leader in the field of clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters that eliminate the need for pipe entry points, eliminate wear,  and does not require shutdown for maintenance.

For more information, contact Classic Controls.
https://classiccontrols.com
863.644.3642

Friday, May 24, 2019

Globe Control Valves

Globe Control Valves
Internal view of globe control valve (Masoneilan)
Globe control valves work differently when compared to gate valves, ball valves, butterfly valves and plug valves in process control applications. They are primarily used to control the flow inside pipes, and are popular in a wide variety of industries. Globe control valves are ideal in situations where precise control is required. They are used to regulate flow in pipelines with a high degree of accuracy by regulating a pressures drop created in the valve body that allows the fluid to pass through the passageway (port) in the valve body. The control valve stem provides linear motion to bi-directionally control flow, opening and closing the valve by changing the distance between valve disc and seat. The flow in the pipeline changes according to the position of the disc lifting from the seat. The movement is controlled through the use of manual operators, or through the use of electric or pneumatic actuators.

Applications of Globe Control Valves 

Globe control valves are used in many different industries, but particularly in the petrochemical and power generation industries on fuel oil pipes, chemical feed systems, steam pipes, as well as cooling water and feedwater systems.  Other industrial applications of globe valve include boiler, main steam vents, and turbine lube oil systems.

Pros

Globe control valves have many advantages that make them preferable over other valve designs. Globe control valves have excellent shut-off and throttling capabilities. In addition, globe valves are easy to maintain and repair compared to other valves.

Cons

Globe control valves have also certain shortcomings. For instance, globe valves have an S-shaped flow pattern (as opposed to a straight-through flow pattern) which creates a significant pressure drop making them unsuitable for applications constant pressure is required.  Another shortcoming of the globe valves is they generally require greater torque to open and close, requiring larger actuators to properly seat the valve.

For more information on industrial globe valves, or any type of industrial valve, contact Classic Controls by calling 863-644-3642 or by visiting https://classiccontrols.com.